Distemper Outbreak and Its Effect on African Wild Dog Conservation

Author : LavadaCrooks
Publish Date : 2021-04-20 09:43:48
Distemper Outbreak and Its Effect on African Wild Dog Conservation

Conclusions

These results show that the primary cause of death of these African wild dogs was CDV infection. Canine distemper is highly infectious for many species of carnivores and causes high death rates in immunologically naïve populations[7]. It is a known cause of death in free-living African wild dogs[8], as well as other wild carnivores, both free-living and captive[9,10]. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the causative virus was a CDV strain circulating in the region in the past decade[11,12] (Figure 2B).

Potential routes of transmission of this virus to the captive breeding groups are by direct contact with infected domestic dogs or wild carnivores or indirectly by contact with humans or their equipment. Domestic dog populations in some parts of Tanzania are endemically infected with CDV and were considered to be the source of infection for canine distemper in Serengeti lions in 1994[13]. Domestic dogs were not present at Mkomazi Game Reserve; however, transmission of CDV from domestic dogs in neighboring villages cannot be ruled out.

Because vaccination with live attenuated virus had been suspected of causing past deaths of African wild dogs[14,15] the animals in this breeding program were vaccinated with a CDV-ISCOM vaccine, which does not contain live virus. This vaccine protects harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and dogs against phocine distemper virus infection[2], which is closely related to CDV, and resulted in protective antibody levels to CDV in African wild dogs monitored at the beginning of this captive breeding program (data not shown). However, the lack of neutralizing antibody titers to CDV in sera of these African wild dogs from November 2000 and the high death rate from canine distemper despite recent vaccination indicate vaccination failure. We are investigating possible reasons for this failure, including problems with application, maintenance of the cold chain, efficacy of the vaccine, and antiviral immune response of the African wild dogs.

Conservation of endangered species, both free-living and captive, has been jeopardized by infectious disease outbreaks in the past[10]. This outbreak of canine distemper illustrates the disastrous effects that such a disease can have on inadequately protected animals. We therefore conclude that any further attempts to breed African wild dogs in captivity will need to ensure a vaccination regime against canine distemper and other infectious diseases that is both effective in this species and practical to implement under field conditions.

Acknowledgments

We thank the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism and the Department of Wildlife of Tanzania for their help and support.

Reprint Address

Address for correspondence: A.D.M.E. Osterhaus, Institute of Virology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands; fax: +31Conclusions

These results show that the primary cause of death of these African wild dogs was CDV infection. Canine distemper is highly infectious for many species of carnivores and causes high death rates in immunologically naïve populations[7]. It is a known cause of death in free-living African wild dogs[8], as well as other wild carnivores, both free-living and captive[9,10]. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the causative virus was a CDV strain circulating in the region in the past decade[11,12] (Figure 2B).

Potential routes of transmission of this virus to the captive breeding groups are by direct contact with infected domestic dogs or wild carnivores or indirectly by contact with humans or their equipment. Domestic dog populations in some parts of Tanzania are endemically infected with CDV and were considered to be the source of infection for canine distemper in Serengeti lions in 1994[13]. Domestic dogs were not present at Mkomazi Game Reserve; however, transmission of CDV from domestic dogs in neighboring villages cannot be ruled out.

Because vaccination with live attenuated virus had been suspected of causing past deaths of African wild dogs[14,15] the animals in this breeding program were vaccinated with a CDV-ISCOM vaccine, which does not contain live virus. This vaccine protects harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and dogs against phocine distemper virus infection[2], which is closely related to CDV, and resulted in protective antibody levels to CDV in African wild dogs monitored at the beginning of this captive breeding program (data not shown). However, the lack of neutralizing antibody titers to CDV in sera of these African wild dogs from November 2000 and the high death rate from canine distemper despite recent vaccination indicate vaccination failure. We are investigating possible reasons for this failure, including problems with application, maintenance of the cold chain, efficacy of the vaccine, and antiviral immune response of the African wild dogs.

Conservation of endangered species, both free-living and captive, has been jeopardized by infectious disease outbreaks in the past[10]. This outbreak of canine distemper illustrates the disastrous effects that such a disease can have on inadequately protected animals. We therefore conclude that any further attempts to breed African wild dogs in captivity will need to ensure a vaccination regime against canine distemper and other infectious diseases that is both effective in this species and practical to implement under field conditions.

Acknowledgments

We thank the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism and the Department of Wildlife of Tanzania for their help and support.

Reprint Address

Address for correspondence: A.D.M.E. Osterhaus, Institute of Virology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands; fax: +31 10 408 9Conclusions

These results show that the primary cause of death of these African wild dogs was CDV infection. Canine distemper is highly infectious for many species of carnivores and causes high death rates in immunologically naïve populations[7]. It is a known cause of death in free-living African wild dogs[8], as well as other wild carnivores, both free-living and captive[9,10]. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the causative virus was a CDV strain circulating in the region in the past decade[11,12] (Figure 2B).

Potential routes of transmission of this virus to the captive breeding groups are by direct contact with infected domestic dogs or wild carnivores or indirectly by contact with humans or their equipment. Domestic dog populations in some parts of Tanzania are endemically infected with CDV and were considered to be the source of infection for canine distemper in Serengeti lions in 1994[13]. Domestic dogs were not present at Mkomazi Game Reserve; however, transmission of CDV from domestic dogs in neighboring villages cannot be ruled out.

Because vaccination with live attenuated virus had been suspected of causing past deaths of African wild dogs[14,15] the animals in this breeding program were vaccinated with a CDV-ISCOM vaccine, which does not contain live virus. This vaccine protects harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and dogs against phocine distemper virus infection[2], which is closely related to CDV, and resulted in protective antibody levels to CDV in African wild dogs monitored at the beginning of this captive breeding program (data not shown). However, the lack of neutralizing antibody titers to CDV in sera of these African wild dogs from November 2000 and the high death rate from canine distemper despite recent vaccination indicate vaccination failure. We are investigating possible reasons for this failure, including problems with application, maintenance of the cold chain, efficacy of the vaccine, and antiviral immune response of the African wild dogs.

Conservation of endangered species, both free-living and captive, has been jeopardized by infectious disease outbreaks in the past[10]. This outbreak of canine distemper illustrates the disastrous effects that such a disease can have on inadequately protected animals. We therefore conclude that any further attempts to breed African wild dogs in captivity will need to ensure a vaccination regime against canine distemper and other infectious diseases that is both effective in this species and practical to implement under field conditions.

Acknowledgments

We thank the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism and the Department of Wildlife of Tanzania for their help and support.

Reprint Address

Address for correspondence: A.D.M.E. Osterhaus, Institute of Virology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands; fax: +31 10 408 9485; e-mail: [email protected]

Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(2) © 2002 Centers foConclusions

These results show that the primary cause of death of these African wild dogs was CDV infection. Canine distemper is highly infectious for many species of carnivores and causes high death rates in immunologically naïve populations[7]. It is a known cause of death in free-living African wild dogs[8], as well as other wild carnivores, both free-living and captive[9,10]. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the causative virus was a CDV strain circulating in the region in the past decade[11,12] (Figure 2B).

Potential routes of transmission of this virus to the captive breeding groups are by direct contact with infected domestic dogs or wild carnivores or indirectly by contact with humans or their equipment. Domestic dog populations in some parts of Tanzania are endemically infected with CDV and were considered to be the source of infection for canine distemper in Serengeti lions in 1994[13]. Domestic dogs were not present at Mkomazi Game Reserve; however, transmission of CDV from domestic dogs in neighboring villages cannot be ruled out.

Because vaccination with live attenuated virus had been suspected of causing past deaths of African wild dogs[14,15] the animals in this breeding program were vaccinated with a CDV-ISCOM vaccine, which does not contain live virus. This vaccine protects harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and dogs against phocine distemper virus infection[2], which is closely related to CDV, and resulted in protective antibody levels to CDV in African wild dogs monitored at the beginning of this captive breeding program (data not shown). However, the lack of neutralizing antibody titers to CDV in sera of these African wild dogs from November 2000 and the high death rate from canine distemper despite recent vaccination indicate vaccination failure. We are investigating possible reasons for this failure, including problems with application, maintenance of the cold chain, efficacy of the vaccine, and antiviral immune response of the African wild dogs.

Conservation of endangered species, both free-living and captive, has been jeopardized by infectious disease outbreaks in the past[10]. This outbreak of canine distemper illustrates the disastrous effects that such a disease can have on inadequately protected animals. We therefore conclude that any further attempts to breed African wild dogs in captivity will need to ensure a vaccination regime against canine distemper and other infectious diseases that is both effective in this species and practical to implement under field conditions.

Acknowledgments

We thank the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism and the Department of Wildlife of Tanzania for their help and support.

Reprint Address

Address for correspondence: A.D.M.E. Os

https://expat-motors.com/advert/sc-400-dumps-pdf-is-sure-to-generate-an-affect-inside-your-sc-400-exam/
https://expat-motors.com/advert/get-benefit-of-sca_sles15-dumps-pdf-and-boost-your-sca-sles-15-exam-skills/
https://expat-motors.com/advert/scs-c01-dumps-pdf-is-certain-to-create-an-impact-within-your-scs-c01-exam/
https://expat-motors.com/advert/get-benefit-of-sec504-dumps-pdf-and-enhance-your-sec504-exam-skills/
https://expat-motors.com/advert/series-7-dumps-pdf-is-certain-to-create-an-effect-inside-your-series-7-exam/

terhaus, Institute of Virology, Erasmus University Rotterdam, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam, The Netherlands; fax: +31 10 408 9485; e-mail: [email protected]

Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(2) © 2002 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Cite this: Distemper Outbreak and Its Effect on African Wild Dog Conservation - Medscape - Feb 01, 2002.

r Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Cite this: Distemper Outbreak and Its Effect on African Wild Dog Conservation - Medscape - Feb 01, 2002.

485; e-mail: [email protected]

Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(2) © 2002 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Cite this: Distemper Outbreak and Its Effect on African Wild Dog Conservation - Medscape - Feb 01, 2002.

10 408 9485; e-mail: [email protected]

Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2002;8(2) © 2002 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

Cite this: Distemper Outbreak and Its Effect on African Wild Dog Conservation - Medscape - Feb 01, 2002.



Category : entertainment

Travel the World on a Budget

Travel the World on a Budget

- Travel the World on a BudgetTravel the World on a BudgetTravel the World on a BudgetTravel the World on a Budget


My World Cup Unforgettable Moments

My World Cup Unforgettable Moments

- My World Cup Unforgettable MomentsMy World Cup Unforgettable MomentsMy World Cup Unforgettable Moments


FIFA World Cup - Is Wayne Rooney the Worlds Best Player?

FIFA World Cup - Is Wayne Rooney the Worlds Best Player?

- FIFA World Cup - Is Wayne Rooney the Worlds Best Player?FIFA World Cup - Is Wayne Rooney the Worlds Best Player?